Assert#

Stability: 2 - Stable

Source Code: lib/assert.js

The assert module provides a set of assertion functions for verifying invariants.

Strict assertion mode#

In strict assertion mode, non-strict methods behave like their corresponding strict methods. For example, assert.deepEqual() will behave like assert.deepStrictEqual().

In strict assertion mode, error messages for objects display a diff. In legacy assertion mode, error messages for objects display the objects, often truncated.

To use strict assertion mode:

const assert = require('assert').strict;
const assert = require('assert/strict');

Example error diff:

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.deepEqual([[[1, 2, 3]], 4, 5], [[[1, 2, '3']], 4, 5]);
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected ... Lines skipped
//
//   [
//     [
// ...
//       2,
// +     3
// -     '3'
//     ],
// ...
//     5
//   ]

To deactivate the colors, use the NO_COLOR or NODE_DISABLE_COLORS environment variables. This will also deactivate the colors in the REPL. For more on color support in terminal environments, read the tty getColorDepth() documentation.

Legacy assertion mode#

Legacy assertion mode uses the Abstract Equality Comparison in:

To use legacy assertion mode:

const assert = require('assert');

Whenever possible, use the strict assertion mode instead. Otherwise, the Abstract Equality Comparison may cause surprising results. This is especially true for assert.deepEqual(), where the comparison rules are lax:

// WARNING: This does not throw an AssertionError!
assert.deepEqual(/a/gi, new Date());

Class: assert.AssertionError[src]#

Indicates the failure of an assertion. All errors thrown by the assert module will be instances of the AssertionError class.

new assert.AssertionError(options)#

  • options <Object>
    • message <string> If provided, the error message is set to this value.
    • actual <any> The actual property on the error instance.
    • expected <any> The expected property on the error instance.
    • operator <string> The operator property on the error instance.
    • stackStartFn <Function> If provided, the generated stack trace omits frames before this function.

A subclass of Error that indicates the failure of an assertion.

All instances contain the built-in Error properties (message and name) and:

  • actual <any> Set to the actual argument for methods such as assert.strictEqual().
  • expected <any> Set to the expected value for methods such as assert.strictEqual().
  • generatedMessage <boolean> Indicates if the message was auto-generated (true) or not.
  • code <string> Value is always ERR_ASSERTION to show that the error is an assertion error.
  • operator <string> Set to the passed in operator value.
const assert = require('assert');

// Generate an AssertionError to compare the error message later:
const { message } = new assert.AssertionError({
  actual: 1,
  expected: 2,
  operator: 'strictEqual'
});

// Verify error output:
try {
  assert.strictEqual(1, 2);
} catch (err) {
  assert(err instanceof assert.AssertionError);
  assert.strictEqual(err.message, message);
  assert.strictEqual(err.name, 'AssertionError');
  assert.strictEqual(err.actual, 1);
  assert.strictEqual(err.expected, 2);
  assert.strictEqual(err.code, 'ERR_ASSERTION');
  assert.strictEqual(err.operator, 'strictEqual');
  assert.strictEqual(err.generatedMessage, true);
}

Class: assert.CallTracker#

Stability: 1 - Experimental

This feature is currently experimental and behavior might still change.

new assert.CallTracker()#

Creates a new CallTracker object which can be used to track if functions were called a specific number of times. The tracker.verify() must be called for the verification to take place. The usual pattern would be to call it in a process.on('exit') handler.

const assert = require('assert');

const tracker = new assert.CallTracker();

function func() {}

// callsfunc() must be called exactly 1 time before tracker.verify().
const callsfunc = tracker.calls(func, 1);

callsfunc();

// Calls tracker.verify() and verifies if all tracker.calls() functions have
// been called exact times.
process.on('exit', () => {
  tracker.verify();
});

tracker.calls([fn][, exact])#

The wrapper function is expected to be called exactly exact times. If the function has not been called exactly exact times when tracker.verify() is called, then tracker.verify() will throw an error.

const assert = require('assert');

// Creates call tracker.
const tracker = new assert.CallTracker();

function func() {}

// Returns a function that wraps func() that must be called exact times
// before tracker.verify().
const callsfunc = tracker.calls(func);

tracker.report()#

  • Returns: <Array> of objects containing information about the wrapper functions returned by tracker.calls().
  • Object <Object>
    • message <string>
    • actual <number> The actual number of times the function was called.
    • expected <number> The number of times the function was expected to be called.
    • operator <string> The name of the function that is wrapped.
    • stack <Object> A stack trace of the function.

The arrays contains information about the expected and actual number of calls of the functions that have not been called the expected number of times.

const assert = require('assert');

// Creates call tracker.
const tracker = new assert.CallTracker();

function func() {}

function foo() {}

// Returns a function that wraps func() that must be called exact times
// before tracker.verify().
const callsfunc = tracker.calls(func, 2);

// Returns an array containing information on callsfunc()
tracker.report();
// [
//  {
//    message: 'Expected the func function to be executed 2 time(s) but was
//    executed 0 time(s).',
//    actual: 0,
//    expected: 2,
//    operator: 'func',
//    stack: stack trace
//  }
// ]

tracker.verify()#

Iterates through the list of functions passed to tracker.calls() and will throw an error for functions that have not been called the expected number of times.

const assert = require('assert');

// Creates call tracker.
const tracker = new assert.CallTracker();

function func() {}

// Returns a function that wraps func() that must be called exact times
// before tracker.verify().
const callsfunc = tracker.calls(func, 2);

callsfunc();

// Will throw an error since callsfunc() was only called once.
tracker.verify();

assert(value[, message])#

An alias of assert.ok().

assert.deepEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Strict assertion mode

An alias of assert.deepStrictEqual().

Legacy assertion mode

Stability: 0 - Deprecated: Use assert.deepStrictEqual() instead.

Tests for deep equality between the actual and expected parameters. Consider using assert.deepStrictEqual() instead. assert.deepEqual() can have surprising results.

Deep equality means that the enumerable "own" properties of child objects are also recursively evaluated by the following rules.

Comparison details#

  • Primitive values are compared with the Abstract Equality Comparison ( == ) with the exception of NaN. It is treated as being identical in case both sides are NaN.
  • Type tags of objects should be the same.
  • Only enumerable "own" properties are considered.
  • Error names and messages are always compared, even if these are not enumerable properties.
  • Object wrappers are compared both as objects and unwrapped values.
  • Object properties are compared unordered.
  • Map keys and Set items are compared unordered.
  • Recursion stops when both sides differ or both sides encounter a circular reference.
  • Implementation does not test the [[Prototype]] of objects.
  • Symbol properties are not compared.
  • WeakMap and WeakSet comparison does not rely on their values.

The following example does not throw an AssertionError because the primitives are considered equal by the Abstract Equality Comparison ( == ).

// WARNING: This does not throw an AssertionError!
assert.deepEqual('+00000000', false);

"Deep" equality means that the enumerable "own" properties of child objects are evaluated also:

const assert = require('assert');

const obj1 = {
  a: {
    b: 1
  }
};
const obj2 = {
  a: {
    b: 2
  }
};
const obj3 = {
  a: {
    b: 1
  }
};
const obj4 = Object.create(obj1);

assert.deepEqual(obj1, obj1);
// OK

// Values of b are different:
assert.deepEqual(obj1, obj2);
// AssertionError: { a: { b: 1 } } deepEqual { a: { b: 2 } }

assert.deepEqual(obj1, obj3);
// OK

// Prototypes are ignored:
assert.deepEqual(obj1, obj4);
// AssertionError: { a: { b: 1 } } deepEqual {}

If the values are not equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.deepStrictEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Tests for deep equality between the actual and expected parameters. "Deep" equality means that the enumerable "own" properties of child objects are recursively evaluated also by the following rules.

Comparison details#

const assert = require('assert').strict;

// This fails because 1 !== '1'.
assert.deepStrictEqual({ a: 1 }, { a: '1' });
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected
//
//   {
// +   a: 1
// -   a: '1'
//   }

// The following objects don't have own properties
const date = new Date();
const object = {};
const fakeDate = {};
Object.setPrototypeOf(fakeDate, Date.prototype);

// Different [[Prototype]]:
assert.deepStrictEqual(object, fakeDate);
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected
//
// + {}
// - Date {}

// Different type tags:
assert.deepStrictEqual(date, fakeDate);
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected
//
// + 2018-04-26T00:49:08.604Z
// - Date {}

assert.deepStrictEqual(NaN, NaN);
// OK, because of the SameValue comparison

// Different unwrapped numbers:
assert.deepStrictEqual(new Number(1), new Number(2));
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected
//
// + [Number: 1]
// - [Number: 2]

assert.deepStrictEqual(new String('foo'), Object('foo'));
// OK because the object and the string are identical when unwrapped.

assert.deepStrictEqual(-0, -0);
// OK

// Different zeros using the SameValue Comparison:
assert.deepStrictEqual(0, -0);
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected
//
// + 0
// - -0

const symbol1 = Symbol();
const symbol2 = Symbol();
assert.deepStrictEqual({ [symbol1]: 1 }, { [symbol1]: 1 });
// OK, because it is the same symbol on both objects.

assert.deepStrictEqual({ [symbol1]: 1 }, { [symbol2]: 1 });
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Inputs identical but not reference equal:
//
// {
//   [Symbol()]: 1
// }

const weakMap1 = new WeakMap();
const weakMap2 = new WeakMap([[{}, {}]]);
const weakMap3 = new WeakMap();
weakMap3.unequal = true;

assert.deepStrictEqual(weakMap1, weakMap2);
// OK, because it is impossible to compare the entries

// Fails because weakMap3 has a property that weakMap1 does not contain:
assert.deepStrictEqual(weakMap1, weakMap3);
// AssertionError: Expected inputs to be strictly deep-equal:
// + actual - expected
//
//   WeakMap {
// +   [items unknown]
// -   [items unknown],
// -   unequal: true
//   }

If the values are not equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.doesNotMatch(string, regexp[, message])#

Stability: 1 - Experimental

Expects the string input not to match the regular expression.

This feature is currently experimental and the name might change or it might be completely removed again.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.doesNotMatch('I will fail', /fail/);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: The input was expected to not match the ...

assert.doesNotMatch(123, /pass/);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: The "string" argument must be of type string.

assert.doesNotMatch('I will pass', /different/);
// OK

If the values do match, or if the string argument is of another type than string, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.doesNotReject(asyncFn[, error][, message])#

Awaits the asyncFn promise or, if asyncFn is a function, immediately calls the function and awaits the returned promise to complete. It will then check that the promise is not rejected.

If asyncFn is a function and it throws an error synchronously, assert.doesNotReject() will return a rejected Promise with that error. If the function does not return a promise, assert.doesNotReject() will return a rejected Promise with an ERR_INVALID_RETURN_VALUE error. In both cases the error handler is skipped.

Using assert.doesNotReject() is actually not useful because there is little benefit in catching a rejection and then rejecting it again. Instead, consider adding a comment next to the specific code path that should not reject and keep error messages as expressive as possible.

If specified, error can be a Class, RegExp or a validation function. See assert.throws() for more details.

Besides the async nature to await the completion behaves identically to assert.doesNotThrow().

(async () => {
  await assert.doesNotReject(
    async () => {
      throw new TypeError('Wrong value');
    },
    SyntaxError
  );
})();
assert.doesNotReject(Promise.reject(new TypeError('Wrong value')))
  .then(() => {
    // ...
  });

assert.doesNotThrow(fn[, error][, message])#

Asserts that the function fn does not throw an error.

Using assert.doesNotThrow() is actually not useful because there is no benefit in catching an error and then rethrowing it. Instead, consider adding a comment next to the specific code path that should not throw and keep error messages as expressive as possible.

When assert.doesNotThrow() is called, it will immediately call the fn function.

If an error is thrown and it is the same type as that specified by the error parameter, then an AssertionError is thrown. If the error is of a different type, or if the error parameter is undefined, the error is propagated back to the caller.

If specified, error can be a Class, RegExp or a validation function. See assert.throws() for more details.

The following, for instance, will throw the TypeError because there is no matching error type in the assertion:

assert.doesNotThrow(
  () => {
    throw new TypeError('Wrong value');
  },
  SyntaxError
);

However, the following will result in an AssertionError with the message 'Got unwanted exception...':

assert.doesNotThrow(
  () => {
    throw new TypeError('Wrong value');
  },
  TypeError
);

If an AssertionError is thrown and a value is provided for the message parameter, the value of message will be appended to the AssertionError message:

assert.doesNotThrow(
  () => {
    throw new TypeError('Wrong value');
  },
  /Wrong value/,
  'Whoops'
);
// Throws: AssertionError: Got unwanted exception: Whoops

assert.equal(actual, expected[, message])#

Strict assertion mode

An alias of assert.strictEqual().

Legacy assertion mode

Stability: 0 - Deprecated: Use assert.strictEqual() instead.

Tests shallow, coercive equality between the actual and expected parameters using the Abstract Equality Comparison ( == ). NaN is special handled and treated as being identical in case both sides are NaN.

const assert = require('assert');

assert.equal(1, 1);
// OK, 1 == 1
assert.equal(1, '1');
// OK, 1 == '1'
assert.equal(NaN, NaN);
// OK

assert.equal(1, 2);
// AssertionError: 1 == 2
assert.equal({ a: { b: 1 } }, { a: { b: 1 } });
// AssertionError: { a: { b: 1 } } == { a: { b: 1 } }

If the values are not equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.fail([message])#

Throws an AssertionError with the provided error message or a default error message. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.fail();
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Failed

assert.fail('boom');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: boom

assert.fail(new TypeError('need array'));
// TypeError: need array

Using assert.fail() with more than two arguments is possible but deprecated. See below for further details.

assert.fail(actual, expected[, message[, operator[, stackStartFn]]])#

Stability: 0 - Deprecated: Use assert.fail([message]) or other assert functions instead.

If message is falsy, the error message is set as the values of actual and expected separated by the provided operator. If just the two actual and expected arguments are provided, operator will default to '!='. If message is provided as third argument it will be used as the error message and the other arguments will be stored as properties on the thrown object. If stackStartFn is provided, all stack frames above that function will be removed from stacktrace (see Error.captureStackTrace). If no arguments are given, the default message Failed will be used.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.fail('a', 'b');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: 'a' != 'b'

assert.fail(1, 2, undefined, '>');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: 1 > 2

assert.fail(1, 2, 'fail');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: fail

assert.fail(1, 2, 'whoops', '>');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: whoops

assert.fail(1, 2, new TypeError('need array'));
// TypeError: need array

In the last three cases actual, expected, and operator have no influence on the error message.

Example use of stackStartFn for truncating the exception's stacktrace:

function suppressFrame() {
  assert.fail('a', 'b', undefined, '!==', suppressFrame);
}
suppressFrame();
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: 'a' !== 'b'
//     at repl:1:1
//     at ContextifyScript.Script.runInThisContext (vm.js:44:33)
//     ...

assert.ifError(value)#

Throws value if value is not undefined or null. This is useful when testing the error argument in callbacks. The stack trace contains all frames from the error passed to ifError() including the potential new frames for ifError() itself.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.ifError(null);
// OK
assert.ifError(0);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: ifError got unwanted exception: 0
assert.ifError('error');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: ifError got unwanted exception: 'error'
assert.ifError(new Error());
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: ifError got unwanted exception: Error

// Create some random error frames.
let err;
(function errorFrame() {
  err = new Error('test error');
})();

(function ifErrorFrame() {
  assert.ifError(err);
})();
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: ifError got unwanted exception: test error
//     at ifErrorFrame
//     at errorFrame

assert.match(string, regexp[, message])#

Stability: 1 - Experimental

Expects the string input to match the regular expression.

This feature is currently experimental and the name might change or it might be completely removed again.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.match('I will fail', /pass/);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: The input did not match the regular ...

assert.match(123, /pass/);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: The "string" argument must be of type string.

assert.match('I will pass', /pass/);
// OK

If the values do not match, or if the string argument is of another type than string, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.notDeepEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Strict assertion mode

An alias of assert.notDeepStrictEqual().

Legacy assertion mode

Stability: 0 - Deprecated: Use assert.notDeepStrictEqual() instead.

Tests for any deep inequality. Opposite of assert.deepEqual().

const assert = require('assert');

const obj1 = {
  a: {
    b: 1
  }
};
const obj2 = {
  a: {
    b: 2
  }
};
const obj3 = {
  a: {
    b: 1
  }
};
const obj4 = Object.create(obj1);

assert.notDeepEqual(obj1, obj1);
// AssertionError: { a: { b: 1 } } notDeepEqual { a: { b: 1 } }

assert.notDeepEqual(obj1, obj2);
// OK

assert.notDeepEqual(obj1, obj3);
// AssertionError: { a: { b: 1 } } notDeepEqual { a: { b: 1 } }

assert.notDeepEqual(obj1, obj4);
// OK

If the values are deeply equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.notDeepStrictEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Tests for deep strict inequality. Opposite of assert.deepStrictEqual().

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.notDeepStrictEqual({ a: 1 }, { a: '1' });
// OK

If the values are deeply and strictly equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.notEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Strict assertion mode

An alias of assert.notStrictEqual().

Legacy assertion mode

Stability: 0 - Deprecated: Use assert.notStrictEqual() instead.

Tests shallow, coercive inequality with the Abstract Equality Comparison (!= ). NaN is special handled and treated as being identical in case both sides are NaN.

const assert = require('assert');

assert.notEqual(1, 2);
// OK

assert.notEqual(1, 1);
// AssertionError: 1 != 1

assert.notEqual(1, '1');
// AssertionError: 1 != '1'

If the values are equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.notStrictEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Tests strict inequality between the actual and expected parameters as determined by the SameValue Comparison.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.notStrictEqual(1, 2);
// OK

assert.notStrictEqual(1, 1);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Expected "actual" to be strictly unequal to:
//
// 1

assert.notStrictEqual(1, '1');
// OK

If the values are strictly equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.ok(value[, message])#

Tests if value is truthy. It is equivalent to assert.equal(!!value, true, message).

If value is not truthy, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError. If no arguments are passed in at all message will be set to the string: 'No value argument passed to `assert.ok()`'.

Be aware that in the repl the error message will be different to the one thrown in a file! See below for further details.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.ok(true);
// OK
assert.ok(1);
// OK

assert.ok();
// AssertionError: No value argument passed to `assert.ok()`

assert.ok(false, 'it\'s false');
// AssertionError: it's false

// In the repl:
assert.ok(typeof 123 === 'string');
// AssertionError: false == true

// In a file (e.g. test.js):
assert.ok(typeof 123 === 'string');
// AssertionError: The expression evaluated to a falsy value:
//
//   assert.ok(typeof 123 === 'string')

assert.ok(false);
// AssertionError: The expression evaluated to a falsy value:
//
//   assert.ok(false)

assert.ok(0);
// AssertionError: The expression evaluated to a falsy value:
//
//   assert.ok(0)

// Using `assert()` works the same:
assert(0);
// AssertionError: The expression evaluated to a falsy value:
//
//   assert(0)

assert.rejects(asyncFn[, error][, message])#

Awaits the asyncFn promise or, if asyncFn is a function, immediately calls the function and awaits the returned promise to complete. It will then check that the promise is rejected.

If asyncFn is a function and it throws an error synchronously, assert.rejects() will return a rejected Promise with that error. If the function does not return a promise, assert.rejects() will return a rejected Promise with an ERR_INVALID_RETURN_VALUE error. In both cases the error handler is skipped.

Besides the async nature to await the completion behaves identically to assert.throws().

If specified, error can be a Class, RegExp, a validation function, an object where each property will be tested for, or an instance of error where each property will be tested for including the non-enumerable message and name properties.

If specified, message will be the message provided by the AssertionError if the asyncFn fails to reject.

(async () => {
  await assert.rejects(
    async () => {
      throw new TypeError('Wrong value');
    },
    {
      name: 'TypeError',
      message: 'Wrong value'
    }
  );
})();
(async () => {
  await assert.rejects(
    async () => {
      throw new TypeError('Wrong value');
    },
    (err) => {
      assert.strictEqual(err.name, 'TypeError');
      assert.strictEqual(err.message, 'Wrong value');
      return true;
    }
  );
})();
assert.rejects(
  Promise.reject(new Error('Wrong value')),
  Error
).then(() => {
  // ...
});

error cannot be a string. If a string is provided as the second argument, then error is assumed to be omitted and the string will be used for message instead. This can lead to easy-to-miss mistakes. Please read the example in assert.throws() carefully if using a string as the second argument gets considered.

assert.strictEqual(actual, expected[, message])#

Tests strict equality between the actual and expected parameters as determined by the SameValue Comparison.

const assert = require('assert').strict;

assert.strictEqual(1, 2);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Expected inputs to be strictly equal:
//
// 1 !== 2

assert.strictEqual(1, 1);
// OK

assert.strictEqual('Hello foobar', 'Hello World!');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Expected inputs to be strictly equal:
// + actual - expected
//
// + 'Hello foobar'
// - 'Hello World!'
//          ^

const apples = 1;
const oranges = 2;
assert.strictEqual(apples, oranges, `apples ${apples} !== oranges ${oranges}`);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: apples 1 !== oranges 2

assert.strictEqual(1, '1', new TypeError('Inputs are not identical'));
// TypeError: Inputs are not identical

If the values are not strictly equal, an AssertionError is thrown with a message property set equal to the value of the message parameter. If the message parameter is undefined, a default error message is assigned. If the message parameter is an instance of an Error then it will be thrown instead of the AssertionError.

assert.throws(fn[, error][, message])#

Expects the function fn to throw an error.

If specified, error can be a Class, RegExp, a validation function, a validation object where each property will be tested for strict deep equality, or an instance of error where each property will be tested for strict deep equality including the non-enumerable message and name properties. When using an object, it is also possible to use a regular expression, when validating against a string property. See below for examples.

If specified, message will be appended to the message provided by the AssertionError if the fn call fails to throw or in case the error validation fails.

Custom validation object/error instance:

const err = new TypeError('Wrong value');
err.code = 404;
err.foo = 'bar';
err.info = {
  nested: true,
  baz: 'text'
};
err.reg = /abc/i;

assert.throws(
  () => {
    throw err;
  },
  {
    name: 'TypeError',
    message: 'Wrong value',
    info: {
      nested: true,
      baz: 'text'
    }
    // Only properties on the validation object will be tested for.
    // Using nested objects requires all properties to be present. Otherwise
    // the validation is going to fail.
  }
);

// Using regular expressions to validate error properties:
assert.throws(
  () => {
    throw err;
  },
  {
    // The `name` and `message` properties are strings and using regular
    // expressions on those will match against the string. If they fail, an
    // error is thrown.
    name: /^TypeError$/,
    message: /Wrong/,
    foo: 'bar',
    info: {
      nested: true,
      // It is not possible to use regular expressions for nested properties!
      baz: 'text'
    },
    // The `reg` property contains a regular expression and only if the
    // validation object contains an identical regular expression, it is going
    // to pass.
    reg: /abc/i
  }
);

// Fails due to the different `message` and `name` properties:
assert.throws(
  () => {
    const otherErr = new Error('Not found');
    // Copy all enumerable properties from `err` to `otherErr`.
    for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(err)) {
      otherErr[key] = value;
    }
    throw otherErr;
  },
  // The error's `message` and `name` properties will also be checked when using
  // an error as validation object.
  err
);

Validate instanceof using constructor:

assert.throws(
  () => {
    throw new Error('Wrong value');
  },
  Error
);

Validate error message using RegExp:

Using a regular expression runs .toString on the error object, and will therefore also include the error name.

assert.throws(
  () => {
    throw new Error('Wrong value');
  },
  /^Error: Wrong value$/
);

Custom error validation:

The function must return true to indicate all internal validations passed. It will otherwise fail with an AssertionError.

assert.throws(
  () => {
    throw new Error('Wrong value');
  },
  (err) => {
    assert(err instanceof Error);
    assert(/value/.test(err));
    // Avoid returning anything from validation functions besides `true`.
    // Otherwise, it's not clear what part of the validation failed. Instead,
    // throw an error about the specific validation that failed (as done in this
    // example) and add as much helpful debugging information to that error as
    // possible.
    return true;
  },
  'unexpected error'
);

error cannot be a string. If a string is provided as the second argument, then error is assumed to be omitted and the string will be used for message instead. This can lead to easy-to-miss mistakes. Using the same message as the thrown error message is going to result in an ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT error. Please read the example below carefully if using a string as the second argument gets considered:

function throwingFirst() {
  throw new Error('First');
}

function throwingSecond() {
  throw new Error('Second');
}

function notThrowing() {}

// The second argument is a string and the input function threw an Error.
// The first case will not throw as it does not match for the error message
// thrown by the input function!
assert.throws(throwingFirst, 'Second');
// In the next example the message has no benefit over the message from the
// error and since it is not clear if the user intended to actually match
// against the error message, Node.js throws an `ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT` error.
assert.throws(throwingSecond, 'Second');
// TypeError [ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT]

// The string is only used (as message) in case the function does not throw:
assert.throws(notThrowing, 'Second');
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Missing expected exception: Second

// If it was intended to match for the error message do this instead:
// It does not throw because the error messages match.
assert.throws(throwingSecond, /Second$/);

// If the error message does not match, an AssertionError is thrown.
assert.throws(throwingFirst, /Second$/);
// AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]

Due to the confusing error-prone notation, avoid a string as the second argument.